Tuesday, April 30, 2013

Polish Noun Declension

Earlier I did a post about Polish Verb Conjugation and where to find resources to assist with conjugating Polish verbs.  Now I'd like to talk a little about where to find resources to decline Polish nouns, and also touch on adjectives and pronouns as well, since they must be declined as well.

Wikibooks has a series that shows some tables with example nouns and their declensions.  There are three different pages, one for each gender:
There is also a page on Wikibooks that talks about the general rules for Polish noun cases. 

Wiktionary has a more comprehensive list of Polish nouns, many of which have declension tables (you must click on the "show" link under "declension" to show the table; not all of them have this feature).  Each noun is listed alphabetically but you can jump to different letters using the alphabetical links near the top of the page.  There is also a brief and so far incomplete discussion of declension rules on Wiktionary at http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Polish_nouns.

You can also find links to a couple of excellent grammar books in .pdf form on the Web.  The first is Oscar Swan's excellent "Polish Grammar In A Nutshell."  The general rules for nouns are in Chapter 3 and there are some tables of sample noun declensions on pages 24-28.  The next one is "A Consise Polish Grammar" by Ronald F. Feldstein and it talks about nouns in Chapter 3.  General rules for declension are on pages 41-56.  Both of these books also have information on declining adjectives and pronouns as well. Of course, page numbers and/or chapters that I have mentioned here may changed if the books are revised at some point.

There is a .pdf file of a much more comprehensive grammar, also by Oscar Swan, "A Contemporary Polish Grammar."  This deals with most topics in much more detail than the other two grammar books previously mentioned.  Chapters 3, 4 and 5 have extensive discussions of noun declension for feminine, masculine and neuter nouns respectively and also have some fairly inclusive tables of declension.  Chapters 6 and 7 talk about declining adjectives and pronouns.

There is also a good survey of noun declension on Grzegorz Jagodziński's excellent grammar site (the main link in English is here). There are links that show patterns and tables for various types of nouns, as well as adjectives and pronouns.

A brief table of the rules of declension (with no example nouns declined) can also be found (in Polish) at http://www.hamlet.edu.pl/uczen/?id=koncowki.  There is another brief but somewhat confusing declension table at http://www.polish-translators.com/deklinacja.html which is in both Polish and English.

There is some talk (also in Polish) about the rules for different noun cases on the Polish Wikipedia site at http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deklinacja_(j%C4%99zykoznawstwo). 

Finally, I also have made a set of flash cards called "Polish Nouns Declined" that I have developed for Anki (wow, they have recently really revamped their main page!).  You have to download the software, which is free and open-source, and then go to the list of shared decks within the software program.  (I also have created a deck for "Polish Verbs Conjugated" and have made contributions to Per Eriksson's "Polish-English" deck as well [though the Polish-English deck I am currently using has about 50% more material than the one on the site].  All of these shared flash card decks are completely free.)

Doubtless other resources are out there as well but this list should assist you in finding a good deal of information on declining nouns, adjectives and pronouns.

Sunday, April 28, 2013

Where You Be At? (Part 2)

"Gdzie" means "where."  But it only means "where" in relation to where something is at a given time, without any consideration of where it has been or where it is going.  There are different words for "where" depending on where the action is moving.

"Dokąd" means "to where?" And "skąd" means "from where?"  You would use these if the "where" is moving.  Some of the uses are much too nuanced for me to discuss here, but I would suggest a good grammar book if you are interested in checking out this topic further.  And I'm told that many Poles mix them up in actual usage in colloquial or vernacular speech, so you may not get a sense of how to use them correctly from listening to ordinary conversation.

But there are other words that denote position (in space or time) in connection with some motion:

stąd - from here (also "hence")
dotąd - to here (also "this/that far, so far, until now, that high")
stamtąd - from there
odtąd - since then
odkąd - since when, ever since
dokądś - to somewhere
donikąd - to nowhere
znikąd - from nowhere
skądinąd - from somewhere else


stąd dotąd - from here (one place) to here (another place)
precz stąd! - Get out of here!
nie pochodzę stąd - I'm not from here/I'm a stranger.
daleko stąd - far from here
jak dotąd - as of yet
ależ skąd - not at all, nothing of the sort

Saturday, April 27, 2013

Where You Be At?

The title, of course, will be relevant to this blog post in two ways.  The first thing I want to do is talk about how there is a preconception out there that children learn languages easier than adults.  There doesn't necessarily seem to be a lot of evidence for this, and studies seem to show that adults can learn languages more rapidly and in a more comprehensive fashion than children.  But the myth persists.  Maybe because as an adult, you really have to rewire your brain and think in a different way, and that seems really hard.  I can relate to that.  Learning a new language is not an easy task, and it takes persistence.  It is easy to become discouraged if you are not focused.  But if you just plug away at it, as an adult you will definitely see better results the more you use your new language.  And I've heard adults complain that they constantly make grammatical mistakes.  Well, ain't no native-speaking adult ever be making no grammatical mistakes, right? (There's where I sneak in the spirit of the blog post title for the first time)

But now, I want to turn to actual places you be at.  Say, the four corners of the earth:

północ - north (also means midnight)
południe - south (also means noon, midday, or afternoon)
wschód - east (also means sunrise)
zachód - west (also means sunset)

But there's more places you might be at:

północny wschód - northeast
północny zachód - northwest
południowy wschód - southeast
południowy zachód - southwest

Here are the adjective forms:

północny - northern
południowy - southern
wschodni - eastern
zachodni - western

północno-wschodni - northeastern
północno-zachodni - northwestern
południowo-wschodni - southeastern
południowo-zachodni - southwestern

And some adverbial clauses:

na północy - in the north
na południu - in the south
na wschodzie - in the east
na zachodzie - in the west

na północnym wschodzie, w północno-wschodniej - in the northeast
na północnym zachodzie, w północno-zachodniej - in the northwest
na południowym wschodzie, w południowo-wschodniej - in the southeast
na południowym zachodzie, w południowo-zachodniej - in the southwest

na północ (od) - to the north (of)
na południe (od) - to the south (of)
na wschód (od) - to the east (of)
na zachód (od) - to the west (of)

na północny wschód (od) - to the northeast (of)
na północny zachód (od) - to the northwest (of)
na południowy zachód (od) - to the southwest (of)
na południowy wschód (od) - to the southeast (of)

z północy - from the north
z południa - from the south
ze wschodu - from the east
z zachodu - from the west

z północnego wschodu - from the northeast
z północnego zachodu - from the northwest
z południowego wschodu - from the southeast
z południowego zachodu - from the southwest

A couple of verbs:

wschodzić, wzejść - to rise (about the sun or the moon)
zachodzić, zajść - to set

Here are some places using some of these forms:

półkula północna - northern hemisphere
półkula południowa - southern hemisphere
Biegun północny - the North Pole
Biegun południowy - the South Pole
koło podbiegunowe północne - the Arctic Circle
koło podbiegunowe południowe - the Antarctic Circle
owoce południowe - tropical fruit

Remember that "północ" can mean "midnight" and "południe" can mean "noon" or "midday" also:

o północy - at midnight
przed północą - before midnight
po północy - after midnight
w południe - at midday
przedpołudnie - morning (literally "forenoon"; not the usual word for morning which is "rano" or "ranek")
przed południem - before noon
po południu - in the afternoon, after noon

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Panna Maria, Texas

A town called Panna Maria (which means "Virgin Mary" in Polish) in south-central Texas is arguably the oldest Polish community in the United States, and certainly the first permanent Polish settlement in the US. The town is sometimes described as "Polonia's Plymouth Rock."  There were definitely Polish settlers earlier, but this was the first unified area of established Polish culture in America.  Panna Maria also had the oldest Polish school in the US, St. Joseph's school, which now houses a historical museum.  This town was settled in the mid-19th century by settlers who were mostly from Upper Silesia.  These Polish Texans integrated themselves into frontier life, but the life they lived was not without hardship.  Some of the Polish immigrants also settled nearby and founded the communities of Cestohowa and Kosciusko (note the spelling differences from the Polish spellings of "Częstochowa" [named after the city in Poland on the Warta River] and "Kościuszko" [named after Tadeusz Kościuszko, a veteran of both the Polish-Russian War of 1792 and the American Revolutionary War.])

Many Polish people in this area were sympathizers with the Union Army when the Civil War started, so the community received a lot of harassment from people in the area (in addition to the general harassment that arose from xenophobia towards foreigners).  Still, there were some who joined the Confederate forces; a good number of those may have been coerced into doing so.

There is a good comprehensive history of the town and the settlers at this link, and continuing here. There is also an excellent website talking about Silesian Texans.

In the 1970s, a uranium recovery plant was built in the area.  It was decommissioned a few years later, but the area still suffers from environmental problems as a result.

Over time the Polish spoken in this area became isolated and developed its own dialect with a mix of archaic Polish phrasing, "Pol-Tex" words, and neologisms.

I have been to Panna Maria, which is in Karnes County, about 50 miles southwest of San Antonio.  There don't seem to be a lot of people who speak Polish as a primary means of communication any more, as most of the emigration there from Poland occurred over a century and a half ago.  It is a small, simple community that appears to not have a lot of wealth.  I hesitate to say that it an impoverished area, because much richness can come from within even if there is not a lot of material wealth.  It is also a stop on the Texas Independence Trail.

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

Put 'N Lay: -kładać (-kłaść), -łożyć

-kładać (-kłaść), -łożyć:

These roots have to do with "putting" or "laying."

The main verb is:

kłaść, położyć - to put, to lay

The two forms of this verb are very different from each other. It doesn't seem intuitive that "kłaść" and "położyć" would be two aspects of what is basically the same verb, but they are. I'm not sure if this is an example of suppletion or just a modification of the root where the "a" is changed to an "o", the "d" is changed to a "ż", and the "k" is dropped. The words at the end of this post tend to argue for the latter construction. Most other verbs using this root use the same prefix in both forms, but use the "-kładać" form for the imperfective aspect.

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

kłaść rękę na (+ locative) - to put one's hand on...
kłaść kogoś spać - to put somebody to bed
kłaść na coś nacisk - place emphasis on something
kłaść/położyć czemuś kres - to put an end to something
położyć coś na półkę - to put something on a shelf

kłaść się - to lie down, go to bed (this is the reflexive form, is a synonym for "iść spać")
Example: kłaść się spać - to go to sleep

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

kładka - footbridge (noun)
położenie - location, position (noun)

półka - shelf (noun)
Examples: półka na bagaż - baggage rack
półka na książki - bookshelf

położony - located, situated (adjective)

dokładać, dołożyć - to add, to throw in

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

dokładać komuś pracy - to give somebody additional work
dokładać do ognia - to add to the fire

dołożyć wszelkich starań, żeby... - to make every effort to...
dołożyć do czegoś - to lose money on something [to have to pay extra money for something]
Dołożyła masła do zupy - She added butter to the soup
dołóż więcej masła - add more butter

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

dokładny - precise, accurate (adjective)

dokładnie - precisely, exactly (adverb)
na dokładkę - in addition, for good measure (adverb)

dokładność - accuracy, precision (noun)
dokładka - second helping (noun)

nakładać, nałożyć - to put, to place, to set; to put on; to apply; to inflict

nakładać się - to overlap, to superimpose (reflexive)

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

nakładać komuś na talerz - to give somebody a helping
nakładać rękawiczki - to pull on gloves
nakładać grzywnę - to impose a fine
nakładać sankcje na (+ accusative) - to impose sanctions against...

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

nakład - print run, circulation; outlay (of money, time, effort), expense (noun)
Examples: Nakład książki został wyczerpany - The book is out of print
ukazać się nakładem (+ genitive) - to be published by...
nakłady inwestycyjne - capital expenditure
nakład pracy - the amount of work involved
nakłady (plural of nakład) - expenditure

nakładca - publisher, printer (noun)
nakładka - covering; lap (noun)
nałożnica - concubine (noun)

okładać - to cover, to wrap; to batter, to thrash

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

okładka - cover, jacket [of books] (noun)
Examples: książka w miękkiej okładce - paperback
książka w twardej okładce - hardback

okład - compress, pack (noun)

okładkowy - cover (adjective)

obkładać, obłożyć - to cover, to wrap

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

obkładać kziążki - to put covers on books
obłożyć pole - to search the field

odkładać, odłożyć - to shift; to put away/aside; to lay down; to postpone; to accumulate

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

odkładać na bok - to set aside
odkładać na czarną godzinę - to save for a rainy day
odkładać na swe miejsce - to return, to replace
odłożyć słuchawkę - to hang up the phone
odłóż to - put it away
odłożony / delayed, postponed; earmarked (adjective)

podkładać, podłożyć - to put under; to plant (bomb)

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

podkładać coś pod spód - to put something under
podkładać bombę - to plant a bomb
podkładać komuś nogę - to trip somebody (up)
podkładać ogien pod (+ accusative) - to set fire to...
pokładać w kimś zaufanie - place confidence in somebody

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

podkładka - mat, pad; rest, support (noun)
pokład - layer; deck (noun)

na pokładzie - on board (adverb)

podłoże - basis, groundwork; ground, soil (noun)

przekładać, przełożyć - to put somewhere else; to shuffle; to delay; to translate


przełożyć karty - to cut/shuffle the deck

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

przekład - translation (noun)
przekładaniec - layer cake (noun)
przekładnia - transmission, gear (noun)
przekładnik - transformer (noun)
przekłamanie - distortion, misrepresentation (noun)

przekładalny - translatable (adjective)
przekładowy - translational (adjective)

przykładać, przyłożyć - to apply, to affix; to weigh down

przyłożyć się - to apply oneself (reflexive)

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

przykład - example (noun)
Examples: na przykład (n.p.) - for example
typowy przykład - typical example
brać z kogoś przykład - to follow somebody's example
dla przykładu - as an example
dawać dobry przykład - to set a good example
klasyczny przykład - classic example
stanowić przykład - to exemplify
służyć za przykład - to set an example

rozkładać, rozłożyć - to spread, to lay out; to stretch out; to unfold, to open

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

rozkład - timetable, schedule, curriculum, layout; break up; decay, decomposition
rozkład jazdy - (riding) timetable [for buses, trains, etc.]

składać, złożyć - to assemble, to compose; to submit, to hand in; to fold, to furl; to store, to gather

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

składać fałszywe zeznania - to offer false evidence
składać ofertę - to make an offer
składać zamówienie - to place an order
składać pieniądze - to save money
składać jaja - to lay eggs
składać życzenia - to wish
składać gratulację - to congratulate
składać/złożyć wizytę - to pay a visit
składać/złożyć hołd (+ dative) - to pay tribute/homage to...
tak się składa, że... - it so happens that...
złożyć broń - to lay down one's arms
złożyć podanie o coś - to submit an application for something
złożyć rezygnację - to tender one's resignation
złożyć oświadczenie - to make a statement
złożyć wniosek o (+ accusative) - to apply for...
złożyć zażalenie/skargę na/przeciwko - to make a complaint about/against
składać się - to consist of

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

skład - composition; lineup (sports); store (e.g. for food) (noun)
Examples: skład amunicji - ammunition depot
skład rządu - cabinet
część składowa - component

składka - collection, contribution (of money) (noun)
Examples: składka członkowska - membership fee
składka ubezpieczeniowa - insurance premium
składka na fundusz emerytalny - pension fund

składnia - syntax (grammar) (noun)
składnica - storehouse, warehouse (noun)
składnik - component, constituent, ingredient (noun)
składowisko odpadów - garbage dump (noun clause)

składany - collapsible, fold-up, foldaway, folding; self-assembled (adjective)

mieć na składzie - to have in stock (adverbial clause)

złoża - deposits (noun, plural)
Examples: złoża rudy - ore deposits
złoża węgla - coal deposits

złożony - complex, composite, compound (adjective)

układać, ułożyć - to lay down; to arrange, to compose, to make

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

układać do snu - to put to bed
układać coś według alfabetu - to arrange something in alphabetical order
układać parkiet - to lay a parquet floor
układać włosy - to do hair

układać się, ułożyć się - to negotiate, to shape (up); to lie down, to recline (reflexive)

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

układ - arrangement; configuration; system; layout; agreement (noun)
Examples: Układ Słoneczny - the Solar System
układ nerwowy - the nervous system
układ pokarmowy - the alimentary system
układ scalony - chip/integrated circuit
układ sił - balance of power
zbiorowy układ pracy - collective bargaining agreement
układ krążenia - the cardiovascular system
układ równań - set of equations

ułożenie - arrangement, composition (noun)

ułożony - arranged, well-mannered (adjective)

wkładać, włożyć - to insert, to put in; to put on (e.g. put on clothes)

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

wkładać w coś dużo pracy - to put a lot of work into something
wkładać w coś dużo wysiłku - to put a lot of effort into something
wkładać w coś serce - to put one’s heart in something
włożyć coś do (+ genitive) - to put something into...
włożyć coś do szuflady - to put somehing in a drawer
włożyć w coś wiele pracy - to put a lot of work into something
włożyć klucz do zamka - to insert a key into a keyhole
włożyć pierścień - to put on a ring

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

wkład - contribution; deposit (in bank); refill, cartridge (for printer); input (noun)
Examples: wkład pracy - work contribution
wkład do długopisu - ballpoint pen refill

wykładać, wyłożyć - to lay out; to display, to exhibit; to put, to lay [synonym for "kłaść"]; to lecture

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

wykład - lecture (noun)
wkładka - insert; insole (noun)
sala wykładowa - lecture hall (noun clause)
wykładowca - lecturer, reader (noun)

zakładać, założyć - to establish, to found; to put on (clothes); to install; to assume, suppose

Some examples of the uses of the verb are:

zakładać z góry - to presuppose
założyć rodzinę - to start a family

zakładać się, założyć się - to bet (reflexive)

Derivative uses in other parts of speech:

zakład - institution, establishment, company; bet, wager (noun)
Examples: zakład? - is it a bet?
Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych (ZUS) - Social Insurance Institution
postawić zakład - place a bet
teren zakładu - factory premises
zakład wychowawczy - childcare center
zakład karny - penal institution
zakład fryzjerski - barber/hairdresser shop

zakładka - bookmark; fold, pleat (noun)

zakładnik, zakładniczka - hostage (noun)
Example: przetrzymywać zakładników - to hold prisoners

założenie - establishment, foundation; assumption, stipulation (noun)
Examples: założenia (plural of założenie) - guidelines
wychodzić z założenia, że... - to assume that...
przy założeniu, że... - assuming that...

założyciel, założycielka / founder, foundress (noun)

zakładając, że byłoby to możliwe / assuming it would be possible (example of adverbial participle)

Some miscellaneous uses of the roots:

Here the root is without the initial "k":

ład - order, orderliness (noun)
Examples: doprowadzić coś do ładu - to put something in order
dojść z kimś do ładu - to come to terms with somebody
bez ładu i składu - chaotically
mówić bez ładu i składu - to ramble, to speak incoherently

łóżko - bed (noun)
Examples: łóżko piętrowe - bunk beds
iść do łóżka - to go to bed
wstawać z łóżka - to get up out of bed
ścielić łóżko - to make the bed

Monday, April 8, 2013

Living and Using

Żyw- (or życ-)  has to do with "living."  But when you preface it with "u-" to make "używ-/użyc-," it has to do with "using."

There are a LOT of words using this root.  I don't think I'll be able to scratch the surface of the uses of this root, but I'll try to give an partial overview.

Żywy is an adjective meaning "alive, live, living" or "vivid" or "deep, sincere." The primary meaning is "alive" and the comparative (more alive) is "żywszy;" the superlative (most alive) is "najżywszy."  It is also pretty close to being the last word in a Polish dictionary.

Examples include:
żywe współczucie - deep sympathy
żywa istota - live being
żywy język - modern language
żywa kolory - bright colors
żywe mięso - raw meat
żywa gotówka - instantly available cash
żywy towar - slaves, victims of human trafficking (literally "living goods")
ledwo żywy - barely alive
dotykać do żywego - to hit a nerve

Other adjectives:

"Żywiołowy" can mean "natural" (as in "klęska żywiolowa" or "natural disaster") or "impulsive, spontaneous."
"Ożywiony" is "lively, vivacious, animate."

And some nouns:

"Życie" means "life."

życie nocne - night life
życie osobiste/prywatne - private life
życie seksualne - sexual life
przywracać komuś życie - to bring somebody back to life

"Dożywocie" is a noun meaning "life in prison."
"Żywiciel" is a noun meaning "host" in a biological sense. Or it can mean "breadwinner."

"Odżywka" is a noun meaning "nutrient."

odżywka do włosów - hair conditioner
odżywka dla niemowląt - baby food

"Odżywianie" means "nutrition, nourishment" or "diet."

odżywianie piersią - breast feeding
sztuczne odżywianie - artificial feeding

More nouns:

żywność - food, victuals
żywienie - nutrition, food
wyżywienie - board (as in "room and board")

nieżywotny - inanimate (as used in grammar)
żywotny - animate (as used in grammar)

żywot - life
barwny żywot - life full of adventure
pędzić marny żywot - to lead a miserable life

"Żywioł" is "element."


Żywcem - alive
pogrzebany żywcem - buried alive
Żywnie - however one pleases


"Żyć/przeżyć" is the main verb here.  It means "to live" or " to experience."

"Żywić" is "to feed, to nourish" or "to support."
żywić urazę do - to bear a grudge against
żywić nadzieję, że - to hope that
żywić sympatię do - to like
żywić przekonanie, że - to be convinced that
żywić się czymś / feed on something

dożywać/dożyć - to live to
nażyć się - to enjoy life
ożywać/ożyć - to come to life; to come back (usually about memories)
odżywać/odżyć - to revive, to come back to life, to get a new lease on life
pożyć - to live for a while
pożywiać się/pożywić się - to feed on
przeżywać/przeżyć - to survive, to live through, to go through, to outlive

wyżyć - to survive, to last
wyżywić - to feed (add "się"- to subsist, to nourish)
wyżywać się/wyżyć się - "to take out on somebody" or "to find an outlet for one's energy."
zżywać się/zżyć się - to grow close, to become intimate; to grow accustomed to

zażywać/zażyć - to take (e.g. medicine); to enjoy
zażyć kąpieli - to take a bath
zażywać spokoju - to enjoy peace

zważyć/zważać - to weight

używać/użyć - to use ("używany" is "used, secondhand"--some examples include "używany samochód" - "used car," "używane ubrania" - "second-hand clothes," "nie używany" - "new (not used))."
nadużywać/nadużyć - to abuse; to misuse; to overuse
zużywać/zużyć - to use up, to consume, to spend

spożywać/spożyć - to consume ("spożywczy" is "food" or "groceries."  Examples include: "artykuly spożywcze" - "groceries," "sklep spożywczy" - "grocery store," "przemysł spożywczy" - "food industry.")

Sunday, April 7, 2013

Studying Polish While Running In The Capitol 10K

I ran yet another successful Capitol 10000 race.  Of course, I used it as an opportunity to study Polish.  I made flash cards with about 100 words on them and studied them while I ran in the race. Here is more on the race.

Thursday, April 4, 2013

Protection and Security: "Chron-"

"Chron-" has to do with protection.

“Chronić/schronić” means “to protect, screen or shelter.” Add “się” to this verb and it means “to protect oneself” or “to seek refuge/shelter.” “Chroniony” is an adjective formed from this verb, meaning “protected.”  Nouns include “schronienie,” which is a “shelter” or a “refuge, “ while “schronisko” is also a “shelter” or a “hostel” or “cottage.”

“Ochraniać/ochronić” as well as “uchronić” means “to guard” or “to protect.”

“Ochronny” is an adjective meaning “protective.” Examples include “kask ochronny,” which means “hard hat,” “odzież ochronna,” or, alternatively, “ubranie ochronne,” meaning “protective clothing,” “filtr ochronny” means “sunscreen,” or “znak ochronny,” meaning “trademark.”

“Ochrona” is a noun meaning “protection/conservation” or “security.” “Ochrona przyrody” is “nature preservation,” “ochrona danych osobowych” is “protection of personal data/information,” and “ochrona osobista” is “personal bodyguard.”

“Ochroniarski” is a noun meaning “security” in the general sense, and “ochroniarz” can mean “bodyguard” but is also a word for “environmentalist.”